**java.lang** Math

The class Math contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the elementary exponential, logarithm, square root, and trigonometric functions.

Unlike some of the numeric methods of class StrictMath, all implementations of the equivalent functions of class Math are not defined to return the bit-for-bit same results. This relaxation permits better-performing implementations where strict reproducibility is not required.

## Math Class Syntax

public final class Math

extends Object

## Java Math Compatibility

The Math class has been around since Java 1.0 though some of it’s methods were added on the later releases.

## Math Method Usage Examples

The following are the detailed list of Math methods and descriptions. We have also provided links to examples of each method on the list.

Modifier and Type | Method and Description |
---|---|

static double | abs(double a)Returns the absolute value of a double value. |

static float | abs(float a)Returns the absolute value of a float value. |

static int | abs(int a)Returns the absolute value of an int value. |

static long | abs(long a) |

static double | acos(double a)Returns the arc cosine of a value; the returned angle is in the range 0.0 through pi. |

static int | addExact(int x, int y)Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. |

static long | addExact(long x, long y)Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. |

static double | asin(double a)Returns the arc sine of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. |

static double | atan(double a)Returns the arc tangent of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. |

static double | atan2(double y, double x) Returns the angle theta from the conversion of rectangular coordinates (x, y) to polar coordinates (r, theta). |

static double | cbrt(double a)Returns the cube root of a double value. |

static double | ceil(double a)Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. |

static double | copySign(double magnitude, double sign)Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument. |

static float | copySign(float magnitude, float sign)Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument. |

static double | cos(double a)Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle. |

static double | cosh(double x)Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a double value. |

static int | decrementExact(int a)Returns the argument decremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. |

static long | decrementExact(long a)Returns the argument decremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. |

static double | exp(double a)Returns Euler’s number e raised to the power of a double value. |

static double | expm1(double x) Returns ex -1. |

static double | floor(double a)Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. |

static int | floorDiv(int x, int y) Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) int value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. |

static long | floorDiv(long x, long y) Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) long value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. |

static int | floorMod(int x, int y) Returns the floor modulus of the int arguments. |

static long | floorMod(long x, long y) Returns the floor modulus of the long arguments. |

static int | getExponent(double d)Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a double. |

static int | getExponent(float f)Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a float. |

static double | hypot(double x, double y)Returns sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow. |

static double | IEEEremainder(double f1, double f2)Computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard. |

static int | incrementExact(int a)Returns the argument incremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. |

static long | incrementExact(long a)Returns the argument incremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. |

static double | log(double a)Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a double value. |

static double | log10(double a)Returns the base 10 logarithm of a double value. |

static double | log1p(double x) Returns the natural logarithm of the sum of the argument and 1. |

static double | max(double a, double b)Returns the greater of two double values. |

static float | max(float a, float b)Returns the greater of two float values. |

static int | max(int a, int b)Returns the greater of two int values. |

static long | max(long a, long b)Returns the greater of two long values. |

static double | min(double a, double b)Returns the smaller of two double values. |

static float | min(float a, float b)Returns the smaller of two float values. |

static int | min(int a, int b)Returns the smaller of two int values. |

static long | min(long a, long b)Returns the smaller of two long values. |

static int | multiplyExact(int x, int y)Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. |

static long | multiplyExact(long x, long y)Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. |

static int | negateExact(int a)Returns the negation of the argument, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. |

static long | negateExact(long a)Returns the negation of the argument, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. |

static double | nextAfter(double start, double direction)Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument. |

static float | nextAfter(float start, double direction)Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument. |

static double | nextDown(double d)Returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of negative infinity. |

static float | nextDown(float f)Returns the floating-point value adjacent to f in the direction of negative infinity. |

static double | nextUp(double d)Returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of positive infinity. |

static float | nextUp(float f)Returns the floating-point value adjacent to f in the direction of positive infinity. |

static double | pow(double a, double b)Returns the value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. |

static double | random()Returns a double value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0. |

static double | rint(double a)Returns the double value that is closest in value to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. |

static long | round(double a) Returns the closest long to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity. |

static int | round(float a)Returns the closest int to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity. |

static double | scalb(double d, int scaleFactor) Returns d × 2scaleFactor rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the double value set. |

static float | scalb(float f, int scaleFactor) Returns f × 2scaleFactor rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the float value set. |

static double | signum(double d) Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0 if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0 if the argument is less than zero. |

static float | signum(float f) Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0f if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0f if the argument is less than zero. |

static double | sin(double a)Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle. |

static double | sinh(double x)Returns the hyperbolic sine of a double value. |

static double | sqrt(double a)Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a double value. |

static int | subtractExact(int x, int y) Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int. |

static long | subtractExact(long x, long y) Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a long. |

static double | tan(double a)Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle. |

static double | tanh(double x)Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a double value. |

static double | toDegrees(double angrad)Converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees. |

static int | toIntExact(long value)Returns the value of the long argument; throwing an exception if the value overflows an int. |

static double | toRadians(double angdeg)Converts an angle measured in degrees to an approximately equivalent angle measured in radians. |

static double | ulp(double d) Returns the size of an ulp of the argument. |

static float | ulp(float f) Returns the size of an ulp of the argument. |